Thaat: all Raags have been derived from one of the following 10 Thaats:
1. Bilaval – SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI SA. – All pure notes
2. Kalyan– SA RE GA MA’ PA DHA NI SA. – MA’ tivra
3. Khamaj– SA RE GA MA PA DHA ni SA. – ni komal
4. Bhairav – SA re GA MA PA dha NI SA. – re and dha komal
5. Poorvi – SA re GA MA’ PA dha NI SA. – re and dha komal and MA’ tivra
6. Marva – SA re GA MA’ PA DHA NI SA. – re komal and MA’ tivra
7. Kafi – SA RE ga MA PA DHA ni SA. – ga and ni komal
8. Asavari – SA RE ga MA PA dha ni SA. – ga, dha and ni komal
9. Bhairavi– SA re ga MA PA dha ni SA. – re, ga, dha and ni komal
10. Todi – SA re ga MA’ PA dha NI SA. – re, ga and dha komal and MA’ tivra
Description of ten basic thāts
The 10 basic thāts, according to the Bhatkhande system, are as follows:
Bilawal is the most basic of all the ten thaats. All the swars in the thaat are shuddha or all swars in the natural scale. Bilawal as a raag is not rendered these days however a small variation of the raag called Alhaiya Bilaval is very common. This is a morning raag and its pictorial descriptions create a rich, sensuous ambience in consonance with its performance. Raags in Bilawal Thaat : Deskar, Hamsadhwani, Bihag, etc.
The next thaat is Khamaj which can be obtained by replacing the Shuddha Nishad of Bilawal by Komal Nishad. The raags of this thaat are full of Shringar Ras (romantic) hence this raag is mostly rendered in the form of light classical thumris, tappas, horis, kajris etc. Its pictorial descriptions in the existing texts are sensuous and even today, the raag Khamaj is considered to be a ‘flirtatious’ raag. There is a theory which assumes that in the past, Khamaj scale found its way in Ch’in music of the late medieval China.Raags in Khamaj Thaat : Rageshree, Jhinjhoti, Des, Tilak Kamod, Jaijaiwanti, Khambavati, etc.
Kafi thaat makes use of the Komal Gandhar and Komal Nishad. So basically it adds Komal Gandhar to the Khamaj Thaat. raag Kafi is one of the oldest raags and its intervals are described as basic scale of the Natyashastra. Thus in ancient and medieval times, Kafi was considered as natural scale. Kafi is a late evening raag and said to convey the mood of spring time. Raags in Kafi Thaat : Dhanashree, Dhani, Bhimpalasi, Pilu, Megh Malhar, Bageshree, etc.
Add Komal Dhaivat to Kafi thaat and you get Asavari thaat. Raag Asavari is full of tyag, the mood of renunciation and sacrifice as well as pathos. It is best suited for late morning. However important evening/night raags like Darbari and Adana also use notes of Asavari thaat with different styles, stress points and ornamentations. Raags in Asavari Thaat : Asavari, Desi, Darbari, Adana, Jaunpuri, etc.
Bhairavi makes use of all the komal swars, Rishabh, Gandhar, Dhaivat, Nishad. When singing compositions in Bhairavi raag, the singers however take liberty to use all the 12 swars. Bhairavi raag is named after the shakti or feminine aspect of the cosmic life force, which is personified as a consort to Lord Shiva. Bhairavi is a powerful raag filled with devotion and compassion. Bhairavi is actually performed early in the morning in a peaceful, serious and occasionally sad mood. Traditionally it is rendered as the last item of a program, for its unique fullness of sentiments as well as its wide scope of the tonal combinations. Pictorially, Bhairavi is represented in female form, as the wife of Bhairav. Raags in Bhairavi Thaat : Malkauns, Bilaskhani Todi, Bhupali Todi, Kaunsi Kanada, etc.
Bhairav thaat raags make use of Komal Rishabh and Komal Dhaivat. Bhairav is one of the names of Lord Shiva especially in his powerful form as a naked ascetic with matted locks and body smeared with ashes. The raag too has some of these masculine and scetic attributes in its form and compositions. The raag itself is extremely vast and allows a huge number of note combinations and a great range of emotional qualities from valor to peace. There are many variations on raag Bhairav including (but not restricted to) Ahir Bhairav, Alam Bhairav, Anand Bhairav, Bairagi Bhairav, Beehad Bhairav, Bhavmat Bhairav, Devata Bhairav, Gauri Bhairav, Nat Bhairav, Shivmat Bhairav. This raag is usually performed in a devotional mood in the early morning hours. The vibrations of the notes in Bhairav is said to clear one’s whole mind. The pictorial depictions of raag Bhairav in the ancient texts are austere as well as awe-inspiring.[according to whom?] Raags in Bhairav Thaat : Ramkali, Gunkari, Meghranjani, Jogiya, Bhairav, etc.
Kalyan thaat consists of an important group of evening raags. Characterized by the teevra Madhyam, this thaat literally means good luck. It is considered to be a blessing-seeking and soothing raag. As a result, it is performed in the evening at the beginning of a concert. This raag creates a feeling of the unfolding of an evening. This thaat is huge and consists of many variations on the basic kalyan thaat including raags (but not restricted to) like Shuddha Kalyan, Shyam Kalyan, Yaman Kalyan, Anandi Kalyan, Khem Kalyan (Haunsdhwani + Yaman), Savani Kalyan etc. Raags in Kalyan Thaat : Yaman, Bhupali , Hindol, Kedar, Kamod, etc.
Marwa thaat is obtained by adding a komal Rishabh to Kalyan thaat. The mood of the Marwa family raags is strongly and easily recognizable. The Shadja remains in the form of a shadow till the very end, where it almost comes as a surprise. Komal Rishabh and shuddha Dhaivat are very important. The overall mood of this raag is of sunset where the night approaches much faster than in northern latitudes. The onrushing darkness awakens in many observers, a feeling of anxiety and solemn expectation. Raags in Marwa Thaat : Marwa, Puriya, Bhatiyaar, Bibhas, Sohini, etc.
Poorvi thaat adds a komal Dhaivat to Marwa thaat. These thaat raags usually feature komal Rishabh, shuddha Gandhar and Shuddha Nishad along with teevra Madhyam, the note which distinguishes evening from the morning raags (dawn and sunset). The thaat raag Poorvi is deeply serious, quiet and mysterious in character and is performed at the time of sunset. Pictorial depictions in early texts, often mention the poise, grace and charm of Poorvi. Raags in Poorvi Thaat : Puriya Dhanashree, Gauri, Shree, Paraj, Basant, etc.
Todi has komal Rishab, Gandhar, and Dhaivat, as well as teevra Madhyam. Raag Todi represents the mood of delighted adoration with a gentle, loving sentiment and its traditionally performed in the late morning. Raags in Todi Thaat : Miyan Ki Todi, Gujari Todi, Madhuvanti, Multani, etc.
Thāt and time of performance.
Ragas are normally ascribed to certain periods of the day and night (See Samay). Narada’s Sangita-Makaranda, written sometime between 7th and 11th century, gives warnings to musicians against playing ragas at the incorrect time of day. Traditionally, disastrous consequences are to be expected. Bhatkhande stated that the correct time to play a raga had a relation to its thāt (and to its vadi).